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“Creative people decide to be creative, and they show a creative attitude toward leadership. Creative people exhibit a variety of characteristics that represent decisions or ways of making creative decisions (Sternberg, 2002). They are confident that their insights are more likely to be effective in dealing with certain issues, and their solutions may be more appropriate under certain circumstances (Gardner, 1995). This willingness to challenge, along with their talents, makes them stand out as leaders. Therefore, a new type of leadership – creative leadership – is foregrounded.”  Creativity and Leadership in Organizations: A Literature Review. Jiajun Guo, Richard Gonzales and Anna E. Dilley

“Puccio et al. (2011) defined creative leadership as “the ability to deliberately engage one’s imagination to define and guide a group toward a novel goal – a direction that is new for the group.” Similarly, Basadur (2004) stated that creative leadership means “leading people through a common process or method of finding and defining problems, solving them, and implementing the new solutions.” Given the complexity of both creativity and leadership, some researchers have begun to describe different kinds of creative leadership. Viewing it as a confluence of skills and dispositions, Sternberg and his colleagues (2004) identified several types of creative leadership using his propulsion theory, including Replication, Redefinition, Forward Incrementation, Advanced Forward Incrementation, Redirection, Reconstruction, Reinitiation, and Synthesis. Mumford et al. (2002) proposed a tripartite model – Idea Generation, Idea Structuring, and Idea Promotion – to discuss the jobs of creative leadership. In their view the nature of creative leadership, involving generating new ideas, setting guidance and output expectations, and gathering support for creative work, is complex and sometimes even contradictory.”

The need for Creative Leadership

“In this rapidly changing and increasingly complex world, leadership faces multiple challenges to its traditional roles. Creativity has become a critical concern for most organizations to survive this uneasiness and uncertainty (Mumford, Hunter, Eubanks, Bedell, & Murphy, 2007). At the same time, it has received a great deal of attention recently in both creativity and leadership research (George, 2008; Mumford, Zaccaro, Harding, Jacobs, & Fleishman, 2000; Mumford, Scott, Gaddis, & Strange, 2002; Mumford, Connelly, & Gaddis, 2003; Mumford & Connelly, 1991; Rickards & Moger, 2006; Shalley & Gilson, 2004; Sternberg, Kaufman, & Pretz, 2004; Williams & Foti, 2011). One leading force that draws the fields of creativity and leadership together is change and the complex problems brought about by change (Puccio, Mance, & Murdock, 2011). Some researchers think that creativity is a critical factor in effective leadership that enables an organization or institution to solve ill-defined problems (Mumford & Connelly, 1991), to respond to opportunities (Shalley & Gilson, 2004), and thereby, ISSN: 2354-0036 DOI: 10.1515/ctra-2016-0010 Article history: Received 18 Febuary 2016 Received in revised form 14 May 2016 Accepted 15 May 2016 Theories – Research – Applications Richard Gonzales University of Connecticut E-mail address: Anna E. Dilley University of Connecticut E-mail address: – 10.1515/ctra-2016-0010 Downloaded from PubFactory at 07/25/2016 10:37:59AM via free access 128 to maintain a competitive advantage (Reiter-Palmon, 2004) in a world full of uncertainty.”